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Exonum Data Model

This page describes Exonum data storage principles, from the database engine used (RocksDB), to the abstractions that are used in client applications.

  1. Exonum table types lists supported types of data storage collections. Tables represent the highest abstraction level for data storage
  2. Low-level storage explains how tables are persisted using RocksDB
  3. View layer describes the wrapper over the DB engine that ensures atomicity of blocks and transactions
  4. List of system tables contains tables used directly by the Exonum core
  5. Indexing gives an insight how indices over structured data can be built in Exonum

Table Types

Tables (aka indices) perform the same role as in relational database management systems (RDBMSs). Every table stores records of a specific type. However, unlike RDBMS tables, all Exonum tables internally are implemented as wrappers around key-value stores. Both keys and values in the wrapped stores are persisted as byte sequences. Exonum does not natively support operations (matching, grouping, sorting, etc.) over separate value fields, as it is the case with other key-value storages.

Key Sorting and Iterators

Exonum tables implement iterators over stored items (or keys, values, and key-value pairs in the case of maps). Such iterators use key ordering of the underlying key-value storage to determine the iteration order. Namely, keys are lexicographically ordered over their binary serializations; this ordering coincides with that used in RocksDB.


MapIndex implements a key-value store aka a map. It has the following functionality:

  • Get, set and remove value by key
  • Check if a specific key is present in the map
  • Iterate over the key-value pairs in the lexicographic key order
  • Iterate over keys in the lexicographic key order
  • Iterate over values in the lexicographic key order
  • Clear the map (i.e., remove all stored key-value pairs)


ListIndex represents an array list. The following operations are supported:

  • Get and set a list item by index
  • Append an item to the list
  • Pop or poll the last item from the list
  • Get the list length
  • Check if the list is empty
  • Iterate over index-item pairs ordered by index
  • Insert a sequence of items from an iterator
  • Truncate the list to the specified length
  • Clear the list (i.e., remove all stored items from the list)

ListIndex does not support inserting items in the middle of the list or removing items by index (although it is still possible to implement these operations manually).

Implementation Details

ListIndex saves its items with 8-byte unsigned item indices as keys, serialized in big-endian form (to support proper iteration). The list length is saved in this map with a zero-length byte sequence as a key.


SparseListIndex represents a ListIndex that may contain "gaps". It provides the possibility to delete elements not only from the end of the list, but from any part thereof. Such deletions do not break the order of the indices inside the list.

The remaining functionality of the SparseListIndex is the same as for ListIndex.


ValueSetIndex represents a hash set. The following operations are implemented:

  • Add and remove set elements
  • Check if an element is already present using the element itself or its hash
  • Iterate over stored elements in the lexicographic order of their hashes
  • Iterate over hashes of elements in the lexicographic order
  • Clear the set (i.e., remove all elements)

The hash used in ValueSetIndex is calculated using the hash() method of the StorageValue trait. All built-in types implementing StorageValue compute this hash as SHA-256 of the binary serialization of a type instance.

Implementation Details

Internally, ValueSetIndex uses element hashes as keys, and elements themselves as corresponding values.


KeySetIndex represents a set. The following procedures are implemented:

  • Add and remove set elements
  • Check if a specific element is in the set
  • Iterate over elements in the lexicographic order
  • Clear the set (i.e., remove all stored elements)

Implementation Details

Internally, the element is used as a key, and its value is always empty.

KeySetIndex vs ValueSetIndex

While ValueSetIndex uses a hash as a key, KeySetIndex puts an entire binary serialization of an element into the key.

  • KeySetIndex does not have an additional overhead on hashing set elements.
  • KeySetIndex should not be used when set elements are relatively big; only small elements should be stored in it (such as integers, small strings, small tuples). On the other hand, the ValueSetIndex more easily handles storing big and complex elements.
  • The KeySetIndex introduces a lexicographical order over stored elements, while the ValueSetIndex orders elements arbitrarily due to hash function properties.


Entry represents an index that contains only one element.

The following operations are implemented:

  • Get, set and remove value
  • Check if the value is present

Merkelized Indices

Merkelized indices represent a list and a map with additional features. Such indices can create the proofs of existence or absence for stored data items.

When a light client requests data from an Exonum full node, the proof can be built and sent along with the actual data. Having block headers and this proof, the client may check that received data was really authorized by the validators without having to replicate the entire blockchain contents.


ProofListIndex implements a Merkle tree, which is a Merkelized version of an array list. It implements the same methods as ListIndex, and adds an additional feature: based on Merkle trees, ProofListIndex allows efficiently creating compact proofs of existence for the list items. The following additional procedures are implemented:

  • Get the height of the Merkle tree. As the tree is balanced (though may be not full), its height is close to log2 of the list length
  • Get the value of the tree root (i.e., the hash of the entire Merkle tree)
  • Build a proof of existence for an item at a specific position
  • Build a proof of existence for items at a specific contiguous index range


ProofListIndex is append-only; it does not allow deleting list items. The only way to delete an item from a ProofListIndex is clearing it.

Implementation Details

As with ListIndex, list items are stored with 8-byte keys. However, ProofListIndex also persists all intermediate nodes of the Merkle tree built on top of the list, in order to quickly build proofs and recalculate the Merkle tree after operations on the list.


ProofMapIndex is a Merkelized version of a map based on Merkle Patricia tree. It implements the same methods as the MapIndex, adding the ability to create proofs of existence for its key-value pairs, or proofs of absence if a key is absent in the map. The following additional procedures are supported:

  • Get the root node’s value
  • Build a proof for the requested key. Tree proves either key existence (and its value), or key absence

Low-level Storage

Exonum uses third-party database engines to persist blockchain state locally. To use the particular database, a minimal Database interface should be implemented for it:

  • Get a value by a column family name and a key
  • Put a new value at the specified column family / key (insert or update the saved one)
  • Delete a key-value pair by column family name / key

All the tables functionality is reduced to these atomic call types.

Currently the main database engine is RocksDB.

Values from different tables are stored in column families in the low-level storage, wherein the keys are represented as a byte sequence, and values are serialized according to Protobuf serialization format. A single column family may store data for more than one table (see table groups below). Keys of a specific table are mapped to the low-level storage keys in a deterministic manner using table identifiers.

Table Identifiers

Every table is uniquely identified by a compound identifier, which is used to map table keys into a column family and its keys in the underlying low-level storage. A table identifier consists of 2 parts:

  • String name, which is mapped 1-to-1 to a column family. The name may contain uppercase and lowercase Latin letters, digits, underscores _, and periods .. By convention, table names in services should start with the service name and a period. For example, the only table in the Cryptocurrency Tutorial is named cryptocurrency.wallets, where cryptocurrency is the service name, and wallets is the own name of the table.
  • Optional prefix presented as a sequence of bytes (Vec<u8> in Rust terms).

If the prefix is present, the column family identified by the table name stores a group of tables, rather than a single table. In this case, prefixes are used to distinguish tables within the group.


Key key at the table with name exchange.crypto and prefix BTC (0x42 0x54 0x43 in ASCII) matches key 0x42 0x54 0x43 | key in the column family in RocksDB named exchange.crypto.


It is strongly advised not to admit a situation when a table prefix in a table group starts with another table prefix in the same group. Such cases may cause unpredictable collisions between logically different keys and elements. As a possible way to avoid this, prefixes within the group may have a fixed byte size.

View Layer

Exonum introduces additional layer over database to handle transaction and block atomicity.


Patch is a set of serial changes that should be applied to the low-level storage atomically. A patch may include two types of operations: put a value addressed by a key, or delete a value by a key.


Snapshot fixes the storage state at the moment of snapshot creation and provides a read-only API to it. Even if the storage state is updated, the snapshot still refers to the old table content.


Forks implement the same interfaces as the database underneath, transparently wrapping the real data storage state, and some additional changes. Every fork is based on the storage snapshot. From the outer point of view, the changes are eagerly applied to the data storage; however, these changes are stored directly in the fork and may be easily rolled back. Moreover, there may be different forks of the same database snapshot.

Forks are used during transaction and block processing. A fork is successively passed to each transaction in the block to accumulate changes produced by the transactions, in a patch. If one of transactions in the block quits with an unhandled exception (i.e., raises panic) during execution, its changes are promptly rolled back, so that execution of the following transactions continues normally.

System Tables

The core maintains tables that are used for core blockchain functionality. All of them have core.* prefix.

  • transactions: MapIndex
    Represents a map from the transaction hash into a raw transaction structure.
  • transaction_results: ProofMapIndex
    Keeps execution results for all accepted transactions, indexed by transaction hashes.
  • transactions_pool: KeySetIndex
    Stores the set of hashes of the known transactions that have not been committed yet.
  • transactions_pool_len: Entry
    Caches the number of entries in transaction_pool.
  • transactions_locations: MapIndex
    Keeps the block height and the tx position inside the block for every transaction hash.
  • blocks: MapIndex
    Stores the block object for every block height.
  • block_hashes_by_height: ListIndex
    Saves the block hash that has the requested height.
  • block_transactions: ProofListIndex
    Group of tables keyed by a block height. Each table keeps a list of transactions for the specific block.
  • precommits: ListIndex
    Group of tables keyed by a block hash. Each table stores a list of precommits of the validators for the specific block.
  • configs: ProofMapIndex
    Stores the configuration content in JSON format, using its hash as a key.
  • configs_actual_from: ListIndex
    Builds an index to quickly get a configuration that should activate at the specific height.
  • state_hash_aggregator: ProofMapIndex
    An accessory table used to calculate the "aggregation" of the root hashes of the individual service tables. In effect is sums up the state of various entities scattered across distinct services and their tables.


Unlike relational databases, Exonum does not support indices over fields of table elements as a first-class entity. However, it is possible to create additional tables with indexing semantics and update their content together with the tables being indexed.


The system table block_transactions stores a list of transactions for every block. transactions_locations is an auxiliary table that provides an index to quickly lookup block_transactions by a transaction hash.