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Networking Specification

The Exonum network consists of full nodes connected via peer-to-peer connections, and light clients. Full nodes communicate with each other using Exonum binary serialization format over TCP, and clients interact with full nodes via a RESTful service interface.

Network Structure

Full Nodes

Full nodes store the entire contents of the blockchain. All the full nodes are authenticated with public-key cryptography. Full nodes are further subdivided into 2 categories:

  • Auditors replicate the entire contents of the blockchain. They can generate new transactions, but cannot choose which transactions should be committed (i.e., cannot generate new blocks)
  • Validators exchange consensus messages with each other to reach consensus and add new block into the blockchain. Validators receive transactions, verify them, and include into a new block. The list of the validators is restricted by network maintainers, and normally should consist of 4–15 nodes

Light Clients


See separate article for more details on light clients.

Light clients represent clients in the client-server paradigm; they connect to full nodes to retrieve information from the blockchain they are interested in, and to send transactions. Exonum provides a “proofs mechanism”, based on cryptographic commitments via Merkle / Merkle Patricia trees. This mechanism allows verifying that a response from the full node has been really authorized by supermajority of validators.

Peer-to-Peer Full Node Network

Full nodes use the Exonum binary serialization format over TCP to communicate with each other. Mio library is used for event multiplexing. Each node has an event loop, through which the node receives events about new messages from the external network, timeouts, and new transactions received via REST API.

Messages exchanged by full nodes include consensus messages and transactions.

Transaction Broadcasting

Node broadcasts transactions obtained via API or created by the node itself, but does not broadcast transactions received from the other nodes (via broadcasting or requests mechanism).

Consensus Messages and Requests

Validators generate and process consensus messages as specified by the consensus algorithm. Auditor nodes are set not to receive consensus messages (Propose, Prevote, Precommit) when they are broadcast by the validators.

Connect Messages

On establishing a P2P connection, the nodes exchange Connect messages in which a node indicates its public key. The Connect message also contains the public IP address of the node. Each node stores all received Connect messages in the list of known peers. As soon as a handshake is reached (Connect message is received and successfully processed) from both sides, the nodes begin to exchange messages.


If the whitelist is turned on, then upon receiving the Connect message, the node checks the presence of the public key from the message in the node’s whitelist. If the public key is not included in the whitelist, connection is not accepted.

Whitelist is specified in the whitelist section of the local configuration:

whitelist_enabled = true
whitelisted_peers = ["99ace6c721db293b0ed5b487e6d6111f22a8c55d2a1b7606b6fa6e6c29671aa1",

Peer Discovery

Node sends RequestPeers to a random known node regularly with the timeout peers_timeout defined in the global configuration. In response, the addressee sends its list of known peers. Thus, it is enough to connect to one node at the start and after some time it will be possible to collect Connect messages from the entire network.

The initial list of IP addresses where other full nodes may be is specified in the local configuration (parameter listen_address) of the node. This list is used to discover an initial set of peers on the node start up. If some node changes its IP address, then through peer discovery mechanism a new address becomes known to all other nodes in some time.

Communication with Light Clients

Light clients use JSON serialization to interact with the full nodes via service endpoints. Full nodes receive transactions from the light clients via POST requests, and the light clients get info from the full nodes via GET requests. Transactions from the light clients are authenticated with the help of signatures, which are the part of JSON serialization of transactions. Read requests are generally not authenticated.

Full nodes use Iron framework to implement RESTful HTTP API. Addresses for public and private API endpoints are specified in the node.api section of the local configuration.

Service Endpoints

API endpoints for a particular service are defined via public_api_handler and private_api_handler hooks. All service endpoints are prefixed with /api/services/{service_name}, where service_name is a string service identifier. This identifier needs to be unique within a specific Exonum blockchain.


There is no unified format for naming endpoints (e.g., passing parameters for GET endpoints via path components and/or query parameters). Thus, services need to use best practices for RESTful services.


The configuration update service defines the following endpoints among others:

  • GET /api/services/configuration/v1/configs/{config_hash}
    Looks up the global configuration by its hash
  • POST /api/services/configuration/v1/configs/postpropose
    Proposes new configuration of the service

Note that both endpoints are prefixed with /api/services/configuration prefix as specified above (an additional common prefix v1 is used for forward-compatible versioning). The POST endpoint consumes urlencoded JSON representation of the corresponding service transaction, as it can be inferred from the semantics of POST requests. The GET endpoint consumes {config_hash} param, which is specified as a part of the URL path.